Phytochemical screening and antiviral activity of Marrubium vulgare

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The present study is to investigate the phytochemical content, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the crude and fractions from Marrubium vulgare.

Methodology and results:

The crude methanol extract and fractions using hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol of M. vulgare whole plant were produced in this study. Qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavones aglycones and steroid in all preparations except for the hexane fraction. Carbohydrates, saponins were found present in the crude and ethyl acetate extracts while tannin was detected in the crude, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts. Anthraquinones and terpenes were detected in the hexane fraction. The cytotoxicity of the crude and fractions were examined using a modified MTT assay and the cell concentration that causes 50% of cell death (CC50) was determined. The crude extract and fractions showed no toxicity towards Vero cells with the CC50 value ranges between 140 to 400 µg/mL. Antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), attachment and virus yield reduction assays were analyzed by plaque reduction assay. Only the crude extract, hexane and chloroform fractions showed antiviral activity with the selectivity indices of 3.11, 2.8 and 1.28 respectively. In this study it is revealed that the hexane fraction disrupts the early steps of cyclic replication, including HSV-1 attachment in a dose-dependent manner.

Conclusion, significance and impact of study:

The crude, hexane and chloroform fractions of M. vulgare were not cytotoxic and have antiviral properties. Treatment with the hexane fraction inhibits viral attachment and reduces virus yield. Further study on the mechanism of M. vulgare must be elucidated for the potential as antiviral agent.


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